Citing the rise in lawlessness and the threat of a communist insurgency, Marcos issued the proclamation which closed down Congress and media establishments and led to the arrest of opposition leaders and militant activists – including senators Benigno Aquino Jr, Jovito Salonga and Jose Diokno. Numerous other political opponents were forced into exile abroad.
By virtue of Proclamation #2045, President Marcos lifted the state of Martial Law to show the people of the Philippines and the world that the situation in this country was ‘back to normal’ and that the 1973 Constitution of the Philippines and the government were working together once again.
The termination of the state of martial law throughout the Philippines had the following conditions:
- That the call to the Armed Forces of the Philippines to prevent or suppress lawless violence, insurrection, rebellion and subversion shall continue to be in force and effect; and
- That in the two autonomous regions in Mindanao, upon the request of the residents therein, the suspension of the privilege of the writ of habeas corpus shall continue; and in allother places the suspension of the privilege of the writ shall also continue with respect to persons at present detained as well as others who may hereafter be similarly detained for the crimes of insurrection or rebellion, subversion, conspiracy or proposal to commit such crimes, and for all other crimes and offenses committed by them in furtherance or on the occasion thereof, or incident thereto, or in connection therewith.
General Order No. 8 which empowered the Chief of Staff to create military tribunals, was also revoked and the military tribunals created by that order were dissolved “upon final determination of cases pending therein which may not be transferred to the civil courts without irreparable prejudice to the state in view of the rules on double jeopardy, or other circumstances which render further prosecution of the cases difficult, if not impossible”.
It was also declared (in accordance with the constitution) that:
All proclamations, orders, decrees, instructions, and acts promulgated, issued or done by the incumbent President constitute part of the law of the land, and shall remain valid, legal, binding, and effective even after lifting of martial law, unless modified, revoked, or superseded by subsequent proclamations, orders, decrees, instructions, or other acts of the incumbent President, or unless expressly and explicitly modified or repealed by the regular National Assembly.
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